STANDISH OF DUXBURY

8. MISCELLANEOUS

Helen Moorwood 2013

8.7. Standish of Duxbury Estates Over Six Centuries

Helen Moorwood 2013

I was curious to try to establish the size at various times of the Standish of Duxbury Estates as far as possible. This proved extremely difficult, but the following is the result of efforts to date. This is perhaps of interest to no one other than myself, but you never know. Maybe some else will get bitten by the same bug?

When Hugh de Standish[1A1] arrived in Duxbury from Standish via Heapey at the beginning of the 14th century he established himself in the north of the township, building his Pele tower near the mill on the north banks of the River Yarrow. Future generations of the family were to retain their holdings in the Manor of Heapey, and their Lordship of this Manor, for the next six centuries. Through purchase and marriage, the next two generations after Hugh gradually acquired more land in Duxbury and by 1381 had taken over the Lordship of Duxbury from the Duxburys of Duxbury, even though the latter family continued to live at Duxbury (Old) Hall until 1524.

Partly because of Hugh’s origins in the Standish family of Standish, and partly through a later marriage between the two families, Bradley Hall in Standish came to the family in Duxbury. The lands of this estate extended into the neighbouring townships of Langtree and Worthington and provided them with a permanent foothold in Standish of Standish territory. This remained a prized possession, frequently used as a dower estate for widows and/or as the early inheritance of the son and heir before he took over all the family estates on the death of his father.

Acquisition of the Lordship of the Manor of Whittle-le-Woods followed and by c.1600 they were joint Lords of the Manor of Heath Charnock. At this time Alexander[10A1], of the tenth generation, bought the Manor of Anglezarke from William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby, who was undergoing financial problems during his long drawn-out legal battle with his sister-in-law Countess Alice. Alexander had also inherited, via his heiress grandmother Elizabeth Butler of Rawcliffe, estates in an area between Preston and Lancaster. These were to leave the family on the marriage of daughter Joan to Christopher Banaster, a functionary in the Duchy of Lancaster.

It was this generation of Alexander’s children who lived through the upheavals of the Civil Wars, which soon afterwards saw the end of the male line of Family A and the transfer of ownership to Family B, with whom the estates stayed until the 19th century.

The Standish of Duxbury Muniments contain documentation of all of the above, but it is only from the 17th century that detailed lists have survived. The most notable of these are:

1. Alexander[10A1]’s Inquisition post mortem in 1623.

2. The 1665 Assize Court case when Alexander Standish[11A4] negotiated an agreement with Colonel Richard[11B1].

From these one can make an accurate analysis of the extent of lands owned by the family, extrapolate previous numbers of acreage, etc., and be on solid ground when making statements about any events in which the (more or less) exact extent was relevant, e.g. during Sieges of Duxbury Hall in the 19th century, and what exactly Captain Myles Standish’s descendants thought they were entitled to.

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Catalogue DP397

It is worth repeating here part of the list from the Catalogue of the Standish of Duxbury Muniments DP397, which divides the documents according to different categories, one of these being places mentioned. The full list appears in 2B. DP397 Catalogue. Only those mentioning places are repeated here. It is interesting to note the frequency with which each manor or township is mentioned. It is hardly surprising that the order of frequency is Duxbury 46, Heapey 17, Chorley 11, Whittle-le-Woods 8, Anglezarke 7, Heath Charnock 6. Some of these places appear, of course, in other documents such as Settlements, etc.

Catalogue                                                                   No.      Dates

 

2.         Adlington (inc. Duxbury & Clitheroe)                        2         1356-1505

3.         Anglezarke                                                     7         c.1220-1644

            Bretherton, see 10                                                                                        

6.         Chorley                                                                      11        c.1220-1685

            Clitheroe, see 2.                                            

8.         Duxbury (inc. Adlington & Chorley)             46        c.1300-1742

10.       Hapton (inc. Adlington & Chorley)                1         1525

11.       Heapey (inc. Anglezarke)                               17        1496-1704

12.       Heath Charnock (inc. Heapey)                                  6          1569-1756

14.       Manchester                                                     1         1555

17.       Other Counties                                                          6          1542-1770

18.       Preston                                                           1         1600

20.       Scotforth                                                        1         1596

22.       Standish (added by hand: see DDSc 139/1)   1         1493

23.       Wheelton                                                       1         1338

24.       Whittle-le-Woods                                          8         c.1290-1605

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Later lands

Working from these and later lists of purchases in sources other than the Standish of Duxbury Muniments, Bill Walker, resident and historian of Duxbury, gives the following assessments of the holdings of Standish of Duxbury from the middle of the 18th to the end of the 19th centuries.

The 618 statute acres (or 293 acres at 8 yards to the perch, old measure) of Duxbury manor formed only the kernel of the estate. Heath Charnock held thirty Duxbury farms covering 623 acres. Heapey contributed 1,356 acres. Its coal pit had recently been set on foot again at £60 per year rent. In 1753 the chapel was rebuilt with Sir Thomas having the largest pew. Anglezarke provided 791 acres for the estate. Whittle-le-Woods contributed 256 acres. Further afield Peasfurlong near Warrington measured 838 acres. By the late nineteenth century the Standish of Duxbury Lancashire estates totaled 6,054 acres. It is worth mentioning that by then the Carr family, who inherited the Standish title in 1841, had added their 1,900 Durham acres in the manors of Coken, Grange and Ludworth to the north east of Durham City. Already in 1757 the Lancashire estates were an impressive agricultural holding, not situated on the difficult gritstone to the east or the fine sandy soils to the west but in the mixed farming belt on the area of mixed shales. Modern gardeners’ difficulties and names such as ‘Further Hard Field’ to the north of the Hall indicate the stone in the Duxbury soil. There had been a slight preponderance of ploughed arable land over pasture in the seventeenth century (even the moorland Anglezarke recording 40 per cent ploughed land in 1622), with a steady shift to more and more pasture by the end of the nineteenth century.

     The Duxbury estate might not amount to Lord Derby’s 40,000 acres or the Clifton Family’s 16,000 acres, but this was indeed a fine inheritance.

(W. Walker, Duxbury in Decline 1756-1932:

A story of the decline of a Lancashire landed estate and the families associated with it,

Palatine Books, 1995, p. 7.)

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The following tables present the details in the relevant documents.

Alexander[10A1]’s Inquisition post mortem, 11 September 1623.

(The full text appears in his biography, 6.1. (40) AS 1623: Inquisition post mortem.

 

Manor

Duxbury

Heapey

Whittle-le-Woods

Heath Charnock

Anglezarke

Totals

Lordship

X

X

X

X

X

5

Messuages

13

28

20

12

12

85

Gardens

13

28

20

12

12

85

Water-mills

1

1

1

 

1

4

Acres of land

200

400

200

160

240

1200

Acres of meadow

50

60

40

40

30

220

Acres of pasture

150

240

100

100

130

820

Acres of wood

12

4

1

12

8

37

Acres of moor

20

100

12

30

200

362

Acres of furze & heath

 

200

 

 

500

700

Acres of marsh

 

 

 

 

100

100

Free rent

12s

14d

30s

27s

3s

72s 14d

Tithes of sheaves & grain

 

X

 

 

 

 

Total acreage

532

1004

353

342

1208

3439

Bradley Hall

 

Standish

Langtree

Worthington

Totals

Messuages

1

1

1

3

Gardens

1

1

1

3

Acres of land

6

20

30

56

Acres of meadow

3

3

5

11

Acres of pasture

7

20

15

42

Acres of wood

 

2

2

4

Acres of moor

5

12

12

29

Total acreage

23

59

66

148

Near Lancaster

 

Lancaster

Scotforth

Burrowe

Longton

Goosnargh

Totals

Messuages

1

1

1

2

2

7

Gardens

1

1

1

2

(?)12

(?1)7

Acres of land

6

20

30

10

80

146

Acres of meadow

3

3

5

2

10

23

Acres of pasture

7

20

15

8

30

80

Acres of wood

 

2

2

 

 

4

Acres of moor

5

12

12

 

 

29

Total acreage

21

57

64

20

120

282

and 1 messuage, 1 garden, and 3 acres of land in Chorley.

Grand totals

 

Duxbury, etc.

Bradley

Totals ‘core ancient’

Lancaster

Chorley

Grand totals

Manors

5

 

 

 

 

5

Messuages

85

3

88

7

1

96

Gardens

85

3

88

(?1)7

1

96/?106

Water-mills

4

 

4

 

 

4

Acres of land

1200

56

1276

146

3

1425

Acres of meadow

220

11

232

23

 

255

Acres of pasture

820

42

862

80

 

942

Acres of wood

37

4

41

4

 

45

Acres of moor

362

29

391

29

 

420

Acres of furze & heath

700

 

700

 

 

700

Acres of marsh

100

 

100

 

 

100

Total acreage

3439

148

3587

282

 

3869

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1655 claim by Alexander[11A4]

Spring 1657 claim by Gilbert

June 1657 Deed of feoffment

Sep 1657 Will

1661/2 Codicil

Duxbury

X

 

X

X

 

Heapey

X

 

X

X

 

Whittle-le-Woods

X

 

X

X

 

Heath Charnock

X

X

X

X

 

Anglezarke

X

 

X

X

 

Chorley

X

X

X

 

 

Capital Messuage Bradley Hall, Standish, Langtree, Worthington

X

 

X

X

 

Chorley & Charnock purchased

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

CR ‘fine’1655: Duxbury Heapey Whittle-le-Woods Heath Charnock and Anglezarke with the appurtenances and one hundred and twenty messuages four water corne mills one hundred and twenty gardens fifty orchards one thousand acres of land two hundred acres of meadow four hundred acres of pasture fifty acres of wood six hundred acres of moss two hundred acres of marsh four hundred acres of furze and heath fifty shillings rent and comon of pasture with the appurtenances in Duxbury Heapey Whittle in the Woods Heath Charnock Anlezarkh Standish Langtree and Chorley

 

CR June 1657 Deed of feoffment: Duxbury, Heapey, Whittle in le Woods, Heathcharnock, Anlezarch and Chorley, And all that my Capital Messuage and tenement called Bradley Hall

 

CR Will 1657

her jointure for her life, issuing and Arising out of Duxburie and Heapey,

lands in Chorley and Charnock which I have purchased (repeated several times)

All my Manors and Lordships of Duxbury, Heapey, Whittle in le Woods, Heath Charnock and Anlezarkh, and all that Capital Messuage called Bradley Hall and all my lands tenements and hereditaments thereunto belonging,

Comparison AS & CR

CR’S ‘Compensation’ document/ ‘fine’ of 1655 includes all together:

 

1623 AS’s Ipm

Duxbury ‘core ancient’

1655 CR’s Compen-

sation/ ‘fine’

1657 CR’s Settlement & Will

Manors named

5

6

 

Messuages

88

120

 

Gardens

88

120

 

Water-mills

4

4

 

Orchards

 

50

 

Acres of land

1,276

1,000

 

Acres of meadow

232

200

 

Acres of pasture

862

400

 

Acres of wood

41

50

 

Acres of moor

391

 

 

Acres of moss

 

600

 

Acres of marsh

100

200

 

Acres of furze & heath

700

400

 

Total acreage

3,587

3,044

 

Rent, etc.

72s 14d

50s

 

CR in his 1655 Compensation document gives “my Manors and Lordships of Duxbury, Heapey, Whittle in le Woods, Heathcharnock, Anlezarch and Chorley, And all that my Capital Messuage and tenement called Bradley Hall lying in Standish Langtree and Worthington”. The addition of Chorley (which raises the number of manors to 6) seems to have been largely because Colonel Richard himself had bought a house and lands there, and had meanwhile taken over the joint-Lordship of the Manor with theCharnocks.

Some of the lands had presumably been redesignated over the previous generation, some being called moss in 1655, which had previously been called furze & heath, or similar changes. The totals differ by over 500 acres, but as both are over 3,000 one might assume that they cover more or less the same areas. The total rent has also dropped, which might be accounted for by the smaller acreage or because rents had been negatively influenced by the Civil Wars, with many properties having been affected by local troops passing through.

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