2. DP397 The Standish of Duxbury Muniments

Deeds Purchased (1965) by the Lancashire Record Office (now Lancashire Archives)

2H. 1519-1547: Generations 7 & 8; 3 Jameses

[Commentaries by Helen Moorwood 2002-2013]

From now on, the number of documents for any particular period starts to increase, which made it sensible to find a different division by date. In this case, the death of Henry VIII in 1547 was chosen as the convenient end of one period. He had come to the throne in 1509 and his long reign saw much upheaval, not least through his break with Rome. Very little of national politics is reflected in these family Muniments, but they do indicate an increasing mobility, with wives now sometimes coming from further afield. Also during this period, for the first time, two distinct offshoot junior Standish families established themselves in Duxbury in Generation 8, which was the source of many muddles for 19th century antiquarians trying to sort out all the various namesakes without the benefit of these family papers. Here, we are able to sort out three Jameses. Family Tree FT2 shows them very clearly as James[7A2/7C1], who founded his own branch, named Family C, and one of his (almost certain) sons was James[8C2/8D1], who in turn founded his own family, named Family D. Meanwhile, the senior line continued from Thomas[7A1] with his son and heir James[8A1]. It was also during this period that Ralph Standish of Standish (1479-1538) purchased Duxbury (Old) Hall in 1524 from Thomas Duxbury, the last of the Duxburys of Duxbury to live in Duxbury. Ralph was the son and heir of Sir Alexander Standish of Standish, and two of Ralph’s sisters had married Standishes of Duxbury. All these ‘new’ bonds between the two main families were probably connected with the move about this time of Thurstan, “a younger brother of Standish of Standish” (on their Visitation Pedigree of 1613) to Burgh(e) in Duxbury and the establishment of a completely new Standish of Standish family in the far west of the township. Predictably, these Standish of Duxbury Muniments are still mainly concerned with Family A. The absence of Family B indicates that they might well have already moved away from Duxbury by this time.


4/9.                                                     1519

Bond:   in 20 marks: James Standisch of Duckisburi esq., James Standisch of the same place, gent., Richard Merton and Robert Haidocke of Heipa [Heapey], yeoman, to Oliver Haidocke of Heipa – O.H.L. and his assigns ‘peaseabully’ to occupy and care at their pleasure all the ‘tend cornys’ (tithecorn) in the  town and fields of Heipa for life without any trouble from James Standisch esq. and James Standisch gent., (which ‘cornys’ they hold  for a term of years of the abbey of Evysham, co. Worcs., and of Richard, prior of Penwortham), provided that if this bond is not lawful, James Standisch esq. and James Standisch gent. shall obtain a lease from the prior to Oliver Haidocke.

18 Oct. 11 Hen. VIII                                                                                               1519.

[Add. & edit of 2004 note. This establishes beyond doubt that there were two James Standishes of Duxbury living in Duxbury at this time. “James Standisch of Duckisburi esq.” was almost certainly James[8A1] the new young Lord of the Manor, the son of Thomas[7A1], who had died the previous year. “James Standisch of the same place, gent.” might well have been his uncle James[7A2/7C1]. The “towns and fields of Heipa” (neighbouring Heapey) is an indication that lands there, the original ones owned by the original founder of the family Hugh[1A1], were still with the family, and probably used for second sons.

However, James Standish[7B1], according to the 1613 VP of Family B, must have also been living at this time, and may or may not have been living in Duxbury. Sorting out all these Jameses into their most logical places in the Family Tree took quite some time!

“Evesham was the location of one of Europe’s largest abbeys, of which only Abbot Lichfield’s Bell Tower remains”(Wikipedia). These payments of tithes to the church were, of course, still common. The priory of Penwortham was rather closer to home, which was probably why they were charged with the collection. Lancashire south of the Ribble was still in the Diocese of Lichfield until the creation in 1541 of the Diocese of Chester.  Although there was as yet no sign of future problems, this is, interestingly, the last mention of abbeys or priories in this collection. They would all be disbanded just fourteen years later at the Dissolution of the Monasteries. See:

Documents relating to the priory of Penwortham and other possessions in Lancashire of the abbey of Evesham(Ed.) W.A. Hulton, Chetham Society, Old Series, Vol. 30, 1853.]

8/11.    Duxbury Manor Court Roll                                      7 Dec. 1519.

6/9.                                                     1522

Grant:   Richard Wastley of Chorlegh to (John Clayton, sen., esq. and John Clayton, jun.,?) William Werden and Richard Gilibrand – messuage and garden in Chorlegh and 2 1/2 ac. arable in tenure of Richard Wastley – for life of Joan Clayton, sister of the aforesaid (John Clayton . . . remainder?) to – Wastley and the heirs of his body lawfully begotten. Recites grant by Thomas Wastley, son and heir of Geoffrey Wastley, (Sir Alexander Radcliff?), Thomas Standisshe, esq. and Robert Radclyff, chaplain, to Elinor Breres and Hugh Fuller chaplain, of all messuages, lands etc. which grants held of gift messuages, lands etc. which grantors held of gift of (G.W.?) in (Chorlegh?) and elsewhere in co. Lancs, for ever, dated 5 Aug. – Hen. VIII; also lease by – to John Gilibrand and Robert (Kyngeley?) of a close in Chorlegh called Cemerlegh for life of Christiana, sister of Robert Kyngeley and for her use alone, with remainders, dated 9 Aug. same years as recited grant.

12 Hen. VIII               (Badly mutilated)                                                           1521/22.

[Add. 2013.The identity of this Thomas Standisshe, esq. is a mystery. Thomas[7A1] had died in 1517/18 and there is no obvious other one living at this date. Given that the MS is “badly mutilated”, it might be that the date has been misread? Or maybe it is referring to a previous grant by Thomas[7A1]?]

4/10.                                                   1524

Bond:   in £40:   John Holcrofte, son and heir of John Holcroft, esq., Richard Worthyngton of Adlyngton, gents. To James Standysshe, esq. – John Holcrofte to keep covenants specified in indenture between John Holcrofte and James Standysshe made on date hereof.

13 May 15 Hen. VIII                                                                                            1523/4.

[Add. 2013. This was the year when Ralph Standish of Standish bought Duxbury (Old) Hall from Thomas Duxbury, thus seeing the departure of the last Duxbury from the place. The documents covering this are all in the Standish of Standish Papers. There is no trace of this here in the Standish of Duxbury Muniments.]

10/1.                                                   1525

Certificate that James Standyssh of Duxbery, gent., has left in safe custody of William Standyssshe of Kendall, co. Appilby (sic) gent. 63 pieces of evidence concerning lands in Shotylworth in Happton and 26 pieces concerning lands in Bretherton on behalf of Robert Schaykerley (sic), gent., son and heir of Thomas Schaykerley; William Standysshe to deliver deeds to Robert Schaykerley ‘given it shalbe profetable’ to Robert Schaykerley.

Witness:   Sir Richard Peers, Sir John Becke, chaplains, William Collyn, Thomas Tempest and others.

6 Oct. 17 Hen. VIII                                                                                                   1525.

[Add.William Standish of Kendal co. Appleby, appears in the Standish of Standish Deeds. One junior branch of the Washington family of Washington, Co. Durham, lived in Appleby, and their arms were to enter the Standish of Duxbury arms the following year when James[8A1] married Elizabeth, daughter of John Butler of Rawcliffe, Esq, (see next deed), who had inherited Washington lands from a previous Washington heiress. And so, via this rather logical and direct path, in heraldic terms, the stars and stripes in the Washington arms entered the impalement of the Standish of Duxbury arms to be seen today on the Standish pew in St Laurence’s, Chorley. No one has attempted to identify the place of this William Standish in the Standish of Standish Family Tree, but it might have been this undoubted Standish presence in “Kendal, co. Appleby” in Westmorland, which provided one main link between the bride from Appleby, Westmorland and a Standish of Duxbury.

4/11.                                                   1526

Bond:   in £200:   John Boteler of Rawcliff, esq. and John Talbot, esq. and William Westby, esq. to James Standyssh of Dukkysbury esq. – John Boteler to perform covenants specified in indenture of marriage between John Boteler and James Standyssh made on date hereof.

12 July 18 Hen. VIII                                                                                                 1526.

(This was prior to the second marriage ofJames[8A1] to Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of John Butler of Rawcliffe and Anne, a daughter of Sir Richard Shireburne. As mentioned above, it was this marriage that brought the Lawrence, Washington and Butler arms into the Standish shield and land near Lancaster into the family.) 

15/1.                                                   1527

Dispensation:   Thomas, cardinal, archbishop of York, primate and chancellor of England to Henry Rissheton of the diocese of Coventrye and Lichfeld and to Elen Boteler, of the same diocese – to marry though ‘blood syb’ in the 4th degree, (draft).                                                                                              20 Jan. 1526/7.

(Ellen was another of the four heiresses of John Butler and soJames[8A1]’s sister-in-law.)

[Add.The Archbishop of York, Lord Chancellor was Cardinal Thomas Wolsey.]

8/25.                                                   1527

Grant:   James Standysshe esq. to James Holyns – annuity of 13s 4d. from his manor of Dukysbury for life of James Standyssh at feast of St. Martin in winter and at Pentecost in equal portions. Payment of 1d. silver for seisin.

20 Oct. 19 Hen. VIII                                                                                             1527.

8/12.    Duxbury Manor Court Roll              25 Mar. 1528.

8/26.                                                   1530

Lease for lives:   at 26s. 8d. yearly:   James Standysshe of Duxbery, esq. to William Loo and Margery his wife – messuage in Duxbery - Margery Loo not to marry again without consent of James Standysshe and William Loo to serve the King himself or furnish an able man.

6 Oct. 22 Hen. VIII                                                                                                  1530.

[This is interesting as one example of the permanent requirement for any Lord of the Manor to raise a troop of soldiers “to serve the King” when required. The only surviving list of soldiers around this time was six years later in 1536, when Alexander Standish, presumed [7A5], was at the head of the Standish contingent preparing for conflict during the Pilgrimage of Grace.]  

4/12.                                                   1531

Bond:   in £40:   Alice Forde, daughter of Richard Forde, late of Swynley, William Forde, son and heir of Richard Forde and Alexander Fairclogh of Standish to James Standishe, sen., son of Christopher Standishe, kt. – Alice Forde to keep award of Rauff Standish, esq. Alexander Standishe, son and heir of Rauff Standishe and James Standishe, jun., esq. concerning all matters between the parties.

17 Mar. 22 Hen. VIII                                                                                        1530/31.

[Add.James Standish Sr[7A2/7C1] was the uncle of “James Standish, jun., esq.”[8A1]. Ralph and Alexander Standish were of Standish Hall. “Alexander Standishe, son and heir of Rauff Standishe” was named after his grandfather Sir Alexander, who had also bequeathed his name and lands to his first grandson, Alexander[7A5], born in Duxbury in 1491, his namesake ‘cousin’ over in Standish having been born several years later. Sir Christopher[6A1],Sir Alexander’s former comrade-in-arms, is also mentioned in this document for identification purposes, because of the two Jameses. All of the Standishes in this document were, of course, closely related in several ways, because two of Ralph’s sisters had married two Standishes of Duxbury.]


8/27.                                                   1534?

Agreement:   James Standish of Dokesbury, esq. to Gilbert Claghton of Chorley, yeo. – occupation by Gilbert Claghton of 2 closes of land in Dokesbury called Sandyhurst and Pickethurst for 1 year for 17s. from date hereof, even if James Standish redeem mortgage by lease for years for £14. 8s. 4d. at Pentecost next – otherwise if James Standish pay £4. 17s. 4d. at Easter, 1535, Gilbert Claghton shall occupy the premises till James Standish have paid covenants to make all the hedges enclosing the closes along the water and Gilbert Claghton covenants to make all between Castelclyff and Sandyhurst; James Standish covenants to make no way over the 2 closes but to carry firewood; with bond in £40 for performance of above covenants.           (Torn)

12 … … Hen. VIII                                                                                                    1534?

 (“Sandyhurst” is today called Saunders Wood. “Castelclyff” was most likely the name of the hill on which the Pele tower was built, behind the mill, presumably around the time when “the Scots were starting to maraud again and in 1322 reached as far south as Chorley”(Heyes, ‘History of Chorley’, p. 15).)

[Add.Even if not indicating the site of the Pele tower, it is in any case intriguing that a “cliff” was remembered as having had a “castle” on it in former times. ]   

13/5.                                                   1537

Warrant:   Richard Hoghton, kt., J.P., to constable of Duksbury – arrest of William, son and heir of Thomas Wynerd of Cowpull, suspected of felonies etc.                                                                                                                   14 Dec. 1537.

[Add.This was immediately after the Northern rebellion against Henry VIII known as The Pilgrimage of Grace (1536-7). Sir Richard Hoghton had been at the head of 500 troops in Henry VIII’s army under Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby, along with Ralph Standish of Standish with 130 and Alexander Standish of Duxbury with 107. For the complete list of the Lancashire army, and a discussion of the identity of this Alexander, see The Pilgrimage of Grace, 1536; was this Myles’s Great-Grandfather?in the folder MYLES STANDISH. This document might concern one of many incidents in the aftermath of the rebellion, the “felonies” referring to some ‘illegal’ act against the edicts of Henry VIII.]

4/13.                                                   1538

Bond: in £40:   Richard Haidocke of Chorley, draper, to James Standish of Dokesbury, esq. – Richard Haidocke to perform award of Perys Caterall, co. Lancs. gent. and William Walton in le dale, in same county, concerning all matters between the parties especially re rights in lands in Heypay, Chorley and Bolton, lately inheritance of Richard Green, deceased, now in traverse between the parties.

20 Aug. 30 Hen. VIII                                                                                               1538. 

8/13.    Duxbury Manor Court Book                        6 Nov. 1538.

4/15.                                                   1539

Bond:   in £200:   Nicholas Butler of Raucliff esq. to James Standysshe of Dokesbury, esq. – Nicholas Butler to perform award of Roger Asshowe [Ashaw] and John Rygmayden, esqs., Rauf Arosmyth [Arrowsmith] and John Gelybroude [Gillibrand] concerning all matters between the parties.

28 Mar. 30 Hen. VIII                                                                                                1539.

[Add.“Nicholas Butler of Raucliff esq.” was by now head of the Butler family of Middle Rawcliffe on the River Wyre NW of Preston. His elder brother John Butler had died in 1533, leaving four daughters, and brother Nicholas was his heir. John’s daughters were: (1) Elizabeth married to “James Standysshe of Dokesbury, esq.”, James [8A1]; (2) Ellen; (3) Agnes; (4) Isabel, married to Thomas Radcliffe of Winmarleigh. Nicholas, married (2) Elizabeth, daughter of John Clayton of Clayton, who had two sons: (1) Richard Butler married to Agnes, daughter of Sir Richard Hoghton; (2) Henry Butler, married to Ann, daughter of Henry Bannister of the Bank, Bretherton. This Henry Butler lived until 1619 and was to play a large role in ‘Shakespeare’s Lancashire Links’. A ‘genealogical table’ of this family is in Honigmann, Shakespeare: the ‘lost years’, based on Henry Fishwick, The History of the Parish of St Michaels-on-Wyre(Chetham Society, 1891, XXV, p. 159). At the time of this document, it suffices to show how closely James Standish of Duxbury [8A1] was linked by his marriage to the Butlers of Rawcliffe, the Hoghtons, the Radcliffes of Winmarleigh and the Bannisters of Bank.]

21/4.                                                   c. 1539

Survey by Feodary in Lancashire of Courts of Wards and Liveries, on death of Alexander Standisshe of Standisshe, esq., in 1539, leaving Rauf Standisshe, aged 9 years, the heir, and therefore King’s ward, - estates in Standishe, Shevynton, Duckysbury, Chorley, Heithcharnok, Blackrode, Charnok Richard, Wigan, Chatherton, Glodith, Wytton, Ratchedale, Ormyskerk, Brykellisworth, co.Northants     c.  1539.                                   

[Add.This was perhaps a duplicate of a Standish of Standish Deed. Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby became the guardian of young Ralph, who was the son of Alexander Standish of Standish (died 1539), son of Ralph (died 1538), son of Sir Alexander (died 1507). (Eleanor Johnson, The Story of the Standish Family, 1972.) This provides a very useful list of the location of core Standish of Standish lands, which overlap geographically with Standish of Duxbury core lands in Duxbury, Chorley and Heath Charnock. Ormskirk is the only one among the six townships in the list in Myles Standish’s will, the others having been given to grandsons a couple of generations earlier. Property in Ormskirk was owned at this time by at least three distinct Standish branches, all grandsons or great-grandsons of Sir Alexander: young Ralph Standish (above) from the Senior branch at Standish, Thomas Standish of Ormskirk (the branch with a member who went to the Isle of Man) and also by Myles’s (great-)grandfather.

4/14.                                                   1540

Bond: in 4 marks:   James Standish, esq. to William Chorley, sen. Gent. – James Standish to pay William Chorley in Chorley Church, 28s.8d. to the use of Richard brother of William Chorley, at Pentecost or 20 days later.

5 Mar. 31 Hen. VIII                                                                                        1539/40.

19/1.                                                   bef. 1540

Will of Mathew Standysshe of the Parke Broke in Shevington – mentions wife Elianor, and sons Thomas, Raufe and Roger.                                          bef. 1540

(date established by Rental of Lancashire lands of St. John of Jerusalem, c. 1540, pub. L. & C. A. S. vol. LVIII, pp. 57-70, in which Thomas Standisshe is given as renting house called the Parkebroke for 6d. yearly. Mathew refers to his eldest son Thomas and to lands held of St. John of Jerusalem, including the house he dwelt in called the Parkebroke, at 6d. yearly rent).

(Matthew Standishalso held a field in Duxbury, granted to him by Thomas Standish[7A1], to whom he seems to have played the role of a father figure after his own father Sir Christopher[6A1] died.)

[Add.By the time of the death and this will of Matthew “bef. 1540”, Thomas[7A1] was long since dead (1517/18), but his son James[8A1), with a Standish of Standish mother and a Standish of Standish step-grandmother, was obviously still closely connected with all of this family, including “Matthew of the Park Brook in Shevington”.]

4/16.                                                   1542

Bond:   in £40:   Elizabeth Foxhole of Coventry, co. Warwick, widow, to James Standysshe, esq., E. C. to observe award of John Byrkhevvet, William Parker, Lawrence Ireland and Thomas Huddleston, gents., re all actions between the parties.

7 Feb. 33 Hen. VIII                                                                                       1541/2. 

21/5.                                                   1542

Award:   Elizabeth Foxholes, widow of Hugh Standishe, decd. and James Standisshe of Duckesbury, Esq. – concerning right to lands in Heypey, Wheleton and Gonellesmore, inheritence of James Standisshe, which Elizabeth Foxholes as administratrix of Hugh Standishe, claims for term of years and other causes -

Arbitrators: John Birkheved, William Parker of Norton, Sir Thomas Hurleton, Elizabeth Foxholes to deliver deeds and execute release to James Standisshe in return for £8.                         2 May 1542.

(Hugh[7A3]was Sir Christopher’s third son, older half-brother of Alexander[7A5], Myles’s presumed great-grandfather.)

[Add.Hugh and Elizabeth, whose maiden name remains unknown, had left no recorded children, and widow Elizabeth was administratix of her husband’s property. This document is of interest in naming “right to lands in Heapey, Wheelton and Gonellesmore” (all close to Duxbury), from which one might assume that she and Hugh had lived in a property in one of these places, and not in Duxbury itself. Given that these were also named as “inheritance of James Standish”, one sees here a fairly normal example of James[8A1], as son and heir, inheriting the main family property on the death of his father Thomas[7A1] in 1518, but continuing to take care of his father’s younger brothers and in this case, the widow of one of them. It is also interesting to note that Elizabeth married as her second husband someone from Coventry. (Might his name “Foxhole(s)” have been a variation on ‘Vauxhall’?) On first sight this might seem rather surprising, but it is presumably a result of the many ties that existed between Lancashire and the Midlands. At this time the Standishes of Standish had a major property in Northamptonshire, and indeed, spent much of their time there. These generations, the (grand)children of Sir Christopher of Duxbury[6A1] and Sir Alexander of Standish, who had fought for Richard III and then Henry VII, must still have been in touch with many from Lancashire who had moved to the Midlands as a result of the grants by Henry VII to the Stanley army after Bosworth. There were also many merchant ties between the thriving market towns in Lancashire and the Midlands. For example, several from Coventry start appearing in the Preston Guild Rolls later in the century.]

16/4.                                                   1542

Receipt and bond for repayment:   of £6. 13s. 4d.: The King to James Standysshe of Duckesbere, esq. – advance by way of prest, to be repaid within 2 years.       

                                                                                                           7 Jun. 1542.

[Add.This may or may not be connected to the £20 p.a. awarded by Henry VII to Sir Alexander Standish after Bosworth, and a continuing recognition in 1542 by his son Henry VIII of the significance of the Standish of Duxbury role. Or it may or may not be connected in some way with the aftermath of the recent Pilgrimage of Grace in 1536/7, in which Alexander Standish of Duxbury had been at the head of 107 troops for the King under the Earl of Derby. But at least it shows some financial transaction between King Henry “by way of prest” and Standish of Duxbury. 1542 was, of course, during the period immediately following the Dissolution of the Monasteries. As a “prest” (priest) was involved in handing over this money, it might well have had some connection with one of the local churches or monasteries.]

1/4.                                                     1542

Receipt:   for 30s. Jamys Standyshe of Dokysbury esq. to William Holcroft, esq,, the King’s feodary – due in right of Elizabeth, wife of James Standyshe.

24 Aug. 34 Hen. VIII                                                                                               1542. 

17/4.                                                   1542

Lease for lives at 26s. 8d. rent:   for £4:   Richard Laton of Willey, co. Salop, esq. and Agnes, his wife to John Hamond of Hattun, co. Salop, and Richard and John, sons of John Hamonde – premises in Hatton (except oak, ash and ‘crabbe’ trees). Timber for repair of buildings.                                                                    23 Jun. 1542.

[Add.The reason for this appearing in the Standish of Duxbury papers is unknown, but is perhaps a reflection of many ties between Lancashire and Shropshire.]

10/2.                                                   1543

Lease for life at 8s. 8d. Rent: for 23s. 4d, : James Standissh of Dukisbury, esq.  to  Raffe Moresbie of Whitell-in-le-Wods, weiver – 2 closes in Hepaye now in tenure of Jenet, late wife of Henry Philip, deceased, and of Thurstand Shoroke, - with free ‘entre’ and ‘outgate’ – Raffe Moresbie to build a firehouse on 1 of the 2 closes at his own cost; James Standissh covenants to contribute 12 ‘powles’.

28 Aug. 35 Hen. VIII                                                                                             1543.

10/3.                                                   1543

Lease for lives at 8s. rent:   for 40s.   James Standissh to Olyver Garstan of Whitell-in-le-Wods, husb. – certain parcels of land, part of his inheritance, in Heypaye, unto the measure of 5 ac. to be enclosed at pleasure of Olyver Garstan – for lives of Olyver Garstan and one of his sons, Thomas and James, as he shall appoint.

8 Oct. 35 Hen. VIII                                                                                                  1543.

4/17.                                                   1543

Bond:   in £40:   James Brandswood of Wheleton , yeoman, to James Standish of Dukisburie, esq. – James Brandswood to perform award of John Gilibrand and Olyver Gerard, sen., gents. Re all actions between the parties.

2 Dec. 35 Hen VIII                                                                                                  1543.

11/4.                                                   1544

Lease for lives at 2s. rent:   for 10s.:   James Standissh of Dukysburie to William Blacklege and Henry, his son, of Wheleton – parcel of land (2 ac.) a new improvement to be enclosed by William Blacklege and Henry Blacklege at their pleasures on  the common pasture that was ‘meane’ between Sir Richard Hoghton, kt.  and James Standissh called the Cupthurst, in Hepey – for lives of William Blacklege and Henry Blacklege (torn)

Jan. 35 Hen. VIII                                                                                                 1543/44.

[Add.This series of agreements 1543-44 between James Standish[8A1] and tenants in Whittle-le-Woods, Wheelton and Heapey, seem to be normal and straightforward transactions. One point of interest is the appearance in this document of Sir Richard Hoghton, who was, of course, James’s kinsman. At this time Laurence[8C1] was married to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Richard Hoghton. Young son and heir Thomas[9A1] was to marry a few years later Margaret Hoghton, another daughter of Sir Richard Hoghton. The Hoghtons and Standishes of Duxbury together were to own much of the land in this area well into the 19th century.]

16/5.                                                   1547

Subsidy roll, Leyland hundred, made by Sir Henry Farrington, kt., Andrew Barton, Thurstan Tyldesley and John Langtre, esquires, delivered to James Standysh of Duxbury, esq., collector.                                                          20 Apr. 1547.

[Add.The position of James[8A1] as a collector of subsidies confirms his continuing role as a respected and responsible landowner.]


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