STANDISH OF DUXBURY
2. DP397 The Standish of Duxbury Muniments
Deeds Purchased (1965) by the Lancashire Record Office (now Lancashire Archives)
2F. 1400-1459: Generations 4 & 5; Wars in France
[Commentaries by Helen Moorwood 2002-2013]
Writ to Sheriff: Elena, wife of John Walssh v. Gilbert, son of Richard of Longtre, Henry of Standissh, Gilbert of Standish, parson of Standish Church, Ralph of Standissh, sen., Adam Cutte, Robert, son of Edmund of Standish, Ralph of Standissh, jun., Hugh of Ines [Ince], Ralph, son of Henry of Pynyngton [Pennington], John Wennc, Thomas of the Mire [Mere, i.e. Martin Mere?] and John the Smith, chaplain – novel disseisin of common of pasture in Standissh – At Lancaster, 1 Mar. 2nd yr. our regality of co. palatine. 1400/1.
[Add.This seems to have strayed into the Standish of Duxbury Collection from Standish of Standish, as nearly all the names are of the family in Standish and the “common of pasture” was in Standish. Or might it be a duplicate, given that the writ was to the Sheriff at Lancaster? No duplicate exists in the Standish of Standish papers at Wigan Library (transcribed and published by Rev. Porteus, 1933) or those transcribed by Rev. West in 1771, included by Porteus. “2nd yr. our regality of co. palatine” means the second year after Henry IV had become Duke of Lancaster on the death of his father John of Gaunt. In any case this shows yet again how intimately connected the two main Standish families were: Ralph de Standish jun. was almost certainly Ralph[5A1] Standish of Duxbury, son and heir of Sir Christopher[4A1] and Margaret Fleming, daughter of Sir Thomas Fleming, Lord of Croston. Ralph de Standish Sr was almost certainly of Standish, of the next generation after Sir Ralph, who in 1381 had killed Wat Tyler, leader of the Peasants’ Revolt, thus saving the life of Richard II and being rewarded by a knighthood. A stained glass window commemorating this scene was placed in St Wilfrid’s, Standish in the 1920s.]
Grant: John of Stanley, kt. to Edward of Lathome, sen. – all messuages, lands etc. called Anlazeargh [Anglezarke] and all commons etc. – as John of Stanley held by feoffment of William of Fulthorp kt., on condition of paying 1000 marks at feast of St. Alban next.
Witness: Richard of Hoghton, John of Bolde, Henry of Torbok, John of Dalton, kts. John of Coppull, Hugh of Standisshe, Ralph of Standisshe, Gilbert of Langtre, Thurstan of Anderton, etc.
Feast of St. Aldelm, 7 Hen. IV 23 May 1406.
(This Sir John Stanley was the one who founded the family fortunes of his branch by his prowess at tournaments and marrying a Lathom heiress. His descendants became Earls of Derby, and their story is in all standard Derby literature. Several of his family appear again later.)
[Add.The senior line of the Stanley family was still at Hooton in the Wirral, but they continued to be as intimately connected with each other as did the two main Standish branches.
The other knights in this document had all fought with John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, or his son Henry IV (Bolingbroke), in the Lancastrian fight for accession to the Yorkist throne of Richard II, gained in 1399. This story has come down most dramatically until today in Shakespeare’s King Richard the Secondand King Henry the Fourth, Parts One and Two. Henry IV died in 1413, after which Standish knights galore started serving under Henry V and Henry VI in France.
It is of interest that the dates are given referring to the “feast of St Alban” and “the feast of St Aldelm”. Both were popular early English saints, and St Alban appears in a stained glass window in St Laurence’s, Chorley.]
Grant: Edward of Lathome, sen. to Matthew of Lytherland, parson of the church of Astebury co. Chester, Thomas of Chernok, parson of the church of Walay [Whalley?] and Thomas More of Lyverpole – property as 3/2
Witness: as 3/2.
Feast of St. Petronilla, Virgin, 7 Hen. IV 31 May 1406.
[Add.The Charnock family was later to play a large role in the Standish story, when they became joint-Lords of the Manor of Chorley. “The church of Whalley” was perhaps/ presumably distinct from Whalley Abbey. The Abbey had been founded in 1296, and at this time was still being extended. It survived as one of the main ‘local’ Cistercian monasteries until the Dissolution of the Monasteries. The ruins can still be seen today.]
Writ of replevin: Robert Lawrence, sheriff of Lancashire, to Richard of Balshagh, a bailiff of Leylondshire, John of Standish, Porcivell of Standissh, Richard of Lancaster, Ewan of Wales – beasts and cattle of Hugh of Standissh, stolen by Johanna, wife of Edward of Prestcote and James of Prestcote.
3 Jul. 11 Hen. IV 1410.
[Add. Robert Lawrencewas head of the family, one of whose daughters later married a Butler, whose granddaughter married James Standish of Duxbury[8A1] in 1526, which brought the Lawrence, Butler and Washington coats of arms into the Standish of Duxbury Coat of Arms.
John of Standishwas probably/ perhaps a Standish of Standish and probably/ perhaps the John de Standish who later fought at Agincourt, 1415. In any case he was a close kinsman of Hugh de Standish of Duxbury[3A1], who in 1369 had married 2) Alice Standish, daughter of Henry Standish of Standish, thus re-uniting these two families. Hugh’s sister Agatha had married Henry de Duxbury in 1350(-54), so their son John Duxbury and grandson John Duxbury (c.1377-c.1430) were the contemporaries of all those in this document of 1410.
Percival de Standishis a stray, but it was partly meeting his name here that triggered my thoughts of Percival seeking the Holy Grail when I wrote8.6.The Quest for Three Grails in Duxburyin 1998.]
Bond: in 40 marks: William Grygory and Henry Notha of co. Lanc. Esq. to Ralph Standysshe, esq. – 23 May 1 Hen VI to pay at Michaelmas next. 1423.
[Add.Ralph Standish of Duxbury[5A1], meanwhile married (1419) to Joan Gerard, daughter of Sir Thomas Gerard of Bryn. Ralph was the elder brother of Sir Rowland[5A2], at this time away fighting in France. It has often been reported that he fought at Agincourt, but if so he must have been rather young. His ‘uncles’ from Family B were certainly at Harfleur, “Dux” Hugh[3B1] and son Sir Hugh[4B1], with the latter knighted at Agincourt.]
Receipt: for £35. Thomas of Urswyk, esq., Nicholas of Haryngton, esq. and Richard of Shireburne, esq. to Thomas Trigg of Chorlegh, Cristofer of Standissh, John Bochar of Chorlegh and John of Wroo of Chorlegh.
20 Mar. 3 Henr. VI 1424/5.
[Add.Christopher[4A1] is referred to by others as Sir Christopher (knighted 1422/3), but there is no evidence in the Standish of Duxbury Muniments that Christopher[4A1] was ever knighted. No Christopher appears in the Standish of Standish Papers, nor does the name ever occur in that family, so Sir Christopher, Kt, remains a mystery. A Christopher Standish is reported as “fighting in France” in 1421, which would seem to fit in with the alleged knighthood in 1422/3. Whether knighted or not, the Christopher in this document was almost certainly a Standish of Duxbury, given the other names and three people in Chorley. And, rightly or wrongly, I have half-awarded Christopher with a knighthood by always calling him (Sir) Christopher[4A1], on the Family Trees and elsewhere.]
Writ to Sheriff: James Shagh v. Geoffrey Wasteley of Salford, Thomas Wastely of Moston, Hugh Wastely of Salford, all yeomen, Oliver Wastely of Chorley, husb., Thomas Wasteley of Duxbury, yeo., son of Nicholas Wasteley, Robert Grene of Duxbury, Peter Standisshe of Duxbury, ‘laborers’, and Hugh Haydoke of Coppull, husb. – breaking into close of James Shagh [Shaw] and cutting down trees, etc.
20 Jul. 8 Hen. VI 1430.
[Add.Peter Standish of Duxbury is a stray. Given that he was a “labourer”, he was presumably not a son or grandson of the Lord of the Manor of Duxbury. I thus made no attempt to fit him into the Family Tree.]
Grant: Edmund of Wastley to Alan of Standish and William Wodward – all messuages, lands and tenements which Henry of Bradshaigh [Bradshaw] held of him in Chorley for a term of years –
Witness: Henry Chernock, James of Chernock, Richard Banastre, James of Standish and Henry Bradshaigh, etc.
1 Sep. 12 Hen. VI 1433.
[Add.Alan de Standish is another stray. I made no attempt to fit him into the Family Tree. The James de Standish in this document was almost certainly the youngest of three brothers in Duxbury, sons of Sir Christopher[4A1], the father still living at this time (died 1437). The eldest brother was Ralph[5A1], who died osp, the second Sir Rowland[5A2], who was killed at Gerberoy, France in 1435, and the thirdJames[5A3], who thus became Lord of the Manor on the death of his father in 1437.]
Bond: in £20: Thomas, son of Hugh of Hyndelegh, John of Bradshagh of Hagh [Bradshaw of Haigh, near Wigan] and Christofor of Pemberton to James, son of Christofer of Standissh – Thomas to serve the King and James aforesaid as an archer with 2 archers ‘reasonable drayet’ in France from the 1st day of muster next for 1/2 year. Obligation void in case of death or sickness.
Monday after Feast of Corpus Christi, 12 Hen. VI 31 May 1434.
(This James[5A3] son of Christopher[4A1] was the one who presented St Laurence’s skull to St Laurence’s, Chorley, brought back by his brother Sir Rowland[5A2] from Normandy before he was killed at Gerberoi/y in 1435. This document and the next few are the only evidence that James might also have served as a soldier. Whether he did or not, he survived, and was the father of another soldier, Sir Christopher[6A1].)
[Add.The date and details of this document had me puzzled for a while, trying to fit together the dates of Sir Rowland charging on his horse to his death at the Siege of Gerberoi/y, with brother James back in Duxbury at the same time raising (more?) archers. This puzzle was largely clarified when the date of Sir Rowland’s death emerged as May 1435 and not 1434, as had been consistently, but erroneously, reported previously. French websites all agree on the later date for the fighting at Gerberoi.
James Standishhas been variously reported as fighting in France in 1421, 1434 and 1436-8. Although his name might have been confused with the names of his brothers, one might perhaps presume that one of them was James[5A3]. Although it would be good to know, it does not really matter in the current context. The most important fact is that he was the only one of the three brothers to survive and produce a son and heir.]
Bond: in 100 marks of silver: Alexander of Clayton and John of Clayton of Quhytehill [Whittle] to James of Standyssh of Dokysbury – Alisander to be ready at 1st day of muster with an ‘abull man of armes araiet as falles for men of armes and vi abull archers sufficiantly araide and iche archer xxxii aroos and some of home duggbyll hedyt’ and to follow his master privet of ye saide Jamys in ye fourine as hit was mention in ye grete endentures made bytwene ye Erle of Mortayn and ye saide Jamys.’
Feast of St. Chad, bishop, 14 Hen. VI 2 Mar. 1435/6.
[Add.The year before this document Sir Rowland[5A2] had been killed in France and in 1442/3 brother James[5A3] presented the relic of St Laurence to Chorley Parish Church. See the relevant document on 4. VP3. Family A 1613.This delay in presentation to the Church is a strong piece of (albeit circumstantial) evidence for the continuing existence of a private chapel at the Pele in Duxbury. Relics were ‘treasures’, deserving a place in a sanctified building, and not just kept in a random place in the home. The following document of 1443 indicates that James[5A3] was still involved in the war in France in some way, even if he did not participate in person.]
Grant: Nicholas del Croke to Alexander Wastley – messuage, lands etc., of gift of Edmund of Wastley in Chorley, as in a previous grant –
Witness: James Standish of Dokesbury, Gilbert Trigge, Robert of Worthington, etc.
12 Oct. 18 Hen. VI 1439.
[Add.By this year James[5A3] was Lord of the Manor of Duxbury. His eldest brother Ralph[5A1] had died before 1435 osp, his brother Sir Rowland[5A2] had been killed at Gerberoy in May 1435 osp, and father (Sir) Christopher[4A1] had died in 1437.]
Acknowledgement of debt: James Standish and Henry Asshton, esquires, to the Duke and Earl of Somerset and Kendall, lieutenant and captain-general of the Kingdom of France for the King and others – 600 saluts of gold for the purchase of the expences (?) of William of Farley. 3 Sep. 1443.
The salut was a coin issued by Henry V and VI for circulation in their French dominions.
This document, which is extremely hard to read, is dated soon after the Duke’s being created Duke on the 28 Aug. and then crossing to France, from which he was to return in 1444 in disgrace.
Grant: Thomas of Brodehirst to Elizabeth recently wife of John Stanley, kt. – messuage called le Bergh in Anlazargh, with reversion of all lands which Margaret, mother of Thomas, holds as dowry in Anlazargh.
Witness: Hugh of Adington, Uchtred of Dokesbury, Richard of Bulhalgh, etc.
At Anlasargh, 12 May 23 Hen. VI 1445.
(It is interesting that Anglezarke was used as early as this as a dower house for Stanley widows, because a later Countess Alice Stanley, widow of Ferdinando, 5th Earl of Derby, was installed in Anglezarke by Alexander Standish of Duxbury[10A1] (died 1622).)
[Add. The latter event might even have been the installation in the same “messuage called le Bergh”, in memory of it having been the home of an earlier Stanley widow. I have hunted in vain on early and modern maps and on the ground for any trace of a 17th century (or earlier) mansion fit for a Dowager Countess. There were several possibilities, but none emerged as the most obvious. Sir John Stanley in this document was the son of the first Sir John Stanley of Lathom and grandfather of Thomas, 2nd Baron Stanley, who later became 1st Earl of Derby after Bosworth. This Sir John Jr had not fought at Agincourt, but had been at the Siege and capture of Rouen in 1418-19 (Bagley, Stanleys, p. 7) and had died back home in 1437. This “Elizabeth, widow of John Stanley, kt” is otherwise named by historians as “Isabel, daughter of Sir Nicholas Harrington of Farleton in the Lune Valley and sister of Sir William who, through his wife, Margaret Neville, inherited Hornby Castle.” (Bagley, p. 7.) Thus did the Nevilles, Earls of Northumberland, become associated with the Stanleys, with Hornby Castle later coming to the Stanleys.]
[Add. for Duxbury ‘cousins’.The appearance of “Uchtred de Duxbury” in 1445 as a witness establishes the continuing presence of Duxburys in Duxbury, even though they were no longer Lords of the Manor. They were almost certainly living in Duxbury (Old) Hall in the south of Duxbury, while the Standishes had the Pele in the north of Duxbury as their main residence. There is only one further mention of a Duxbury of Duxbury in this Collection. Most other Duxbury documentation is in the Standish of Standish papers. These MSS appear to have been acquired by Ralph Standish of Standish when he bought Duxbury (Old) Hall from Thomas Duxbury in 1524. Let us be thankful that the Standishes of Standish preserved them; otherwise they might have suffered the same fate of disappearance of the 125 Duxbury deeds noted by the College of Arms in 1792, when a Mr Duxbury visited and paid 2s 6d for a search for arms. (Personal correspondence with Norroy and Ulster King of Arms, July 1997).]
Quitclaim: as 3/4.
Letter of attorney: Elizabeth, wife of John Stanley, kt., to William of Maudesley – to receive seisin in property as 3/4 and 3/5. States that Margaret is widow of Richard of Brodehirst.
14 May 23 Hen. VI 1445.
Attestation: Peres Gerrard, kt., - that he had spoken to Sir Edward Grey, now Lord Ferrers of Groby, for James Standysshe, esq., concerning his term of years in the manor of Chorley of which 6 or 7 are yet to come, as granted by the late Lord Ferrers, and asked that he would grant him a new lease thereafter.
6 Feb. 24 Hen. VI (English) 1445/6.
[Add.So James[5A3] was also (joint-)Lord of the Manor of Chorley, with a friend in high places, Sir Piers Gerard, who had a friend in even higher places, Lord Ferrers of Groby. This line of enquiry might produce some interesting results, I thought. Sir “Peres”/Piers/Peter Gerrard was presumably of the Gerard family of Bryn and Ince Halls near Wigan. We have met a couple of Ger(r)ards in previous documents. Later members of both main Gerard families were to play several roles in the Standish of Duxbury story. Meanwhile, as we have noted already, James’s elder brother Ralph[5A1] had been married to Joan Gerard, daughter of Sir Thomas Gerard of Bryn.]
Bond: in 20 marks: William Law, late of Hepay, to James Standish of Dokysbury – William to be ruled by James Standish and take no wife unless James Standish assents to it.
3 Mar. 38 Hen. VI 1459/60.